Advanced Research Writing 391 6384

 

The Impact of Social Media on the Ideology of Racism: A Literature Review

 

The ideology of racism has long existed in American culture and transcontinentally. Where there was once Jim Crow of the American South, Jewish ghettos of Venice, Austria, and genocide of Palestinians, there now also exists a virtual platform to spread racial prejudices – social media. Social media websites have become increasingly popular over the last decade, and while some people use them for recreational and networking purposes, there is a large number of people and groups that use these websites to promote and perpetuate the disease that is racism. These acts create a virtual world of hate, which consequently pervades the thoughts, actions and psyches of society. The research reviewed herein will show how social media users relate to other individuals on social media websites, how they interpret racism, the central role that social media plays in spreading racial intolerance, and various methods that are being used to eradicate racism virtually and socially.

Social relations have changed drastically in recent years. Outside of immediate family members and co-workers we see daily, social life has otherwise been relegated to the technological advancements of the internet and social networking websites that “allow interaction and individual presence to occur across time and space” (Laudone 8). Facebook is one of the most popular and more intricate social networking websites where users develop their own identities, and associations, and can interact with, keep in touch with, and meet old and new friends through instantaneous, textual and visual dialogue. McCosker and Johns mention a term coined digital citizenship – “Digital citizenship has been defined as ‘the ability to participate in society online’” (67). Unlike other social media websites such as Twitter and YouTube, users of Facebook “exist within a broader set of social characteristics (e.g. race, age, gender and sexuality)…these social characteristics shape the ways individuals use Facebook and the ways in which Facebook users create their on-line identities” (Laudone 6). Facebook and other social networking websites like it, present a virtual environment where users feel a need for connection and belonging and often become obsessed with the urge to be informed of the whereabouts and doings of their online associates several times a day. Much of this obsessive behavior stems from today’s preoccupation with celebrity culture and voyeurism (Laudone 9). People have become overly intrigued by the everyday lives of celebrities, which becomes evident in reality television shows, blogs, and tabloids. In turn, social media users attempt to mimic this culture when navigating though their own social space online, making one’s presence in the virtual world a popularity contest, in a sense.

Not only do these social networking sites create a strong sense of connectivity and placement for users, but they often times serve as a primary source of information for many. The Pew Research Center found that “72% of adults who use the internet participate in social media video sharing sites such as YouTube or Vimeo…through such sites, they may upload, view, and respond to videos on a range of topics, including those that address issues of race” (Nakagawa and Arzubiaga 103). In the article, “The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race,” Nakagawa and Arzubiaga contend that, “What makes social media unique in teaching about race is moving beyond the mere content of the video [or text] to understanding the medium itself and to explore who created the content. For example, in YouTube, a user may explore what other content [another user] uploaded and whether [they] posted similar rants” (106). Factors such as access to computers, knowledge of current news and history, as well as being technology savvy, and having, what most times is a false sense of entitlement, plays a major part in the way in which social media users understand, interpret, and comment on issues of race. There is also a vast number of social media users that prescribe to a colorblind ideology, which makes them more susceptible to overlooking and even supporting racists imagery and text witnessed online. In her article entitled, “Facebook: A “Raced” space or “Post-Racial”?” Stephanie Laudone states, “Only instead of the blatant racism seen in the Civil Rights Era, this modern day racism takes the form of a “color-blind” racism, a carefully coded “race talk” that avoids making the user appear racist” (6). Jeff Ginger further affirms this notion in, “The Facebook Project – The Missing Box: The Racial Politics Behind the Facebook Interface,” where he argues that because Facebook, a visually-driven website, does not allow a category or box for users to identify their race or ethnicity when creating their profiles, the site inadvertently endorses the colorblind theory. “By choosing to make a race, ethnicity, or nationality category unavailable and knowing that Facebook is a visually-driven [social networking site], Facebook serves to inadvertently or covertly perpetuate two racist norms: the colorblind mentality and racialized visual classification of others” (Ginger 7).

Anonymity and instantaneously widespread communication are key aspects in what makes social media the new go-to for racists groups and individuals. It is the unrestricted nature of the internet which allows for unusually increased displays of racial bias as opposed to face-to-face racist interaction. “Whereas earlier generations of hate groups were forced to spread their message in person, the advent of social media websites has provided hate groups with nearly unfettered access to millions of potential sympathizers. They aim at spreading their ideologies and seek to make racism, anti-Semitism, homophobia, and other forms of group-focused enmity seem “normal” through targeted online posts, videos and discussions” (Gross and Cohen). Gross and Cohen go on to explain how many hate groups use code names and symbols to express their hateful messages, and because they understand that overtly racist propaganda will only appeal to a narrow audience, they often times camouflage their hate speech as an objection or protest to a range of current social ills. Other forms of racism performed by individuals on social media are not as clever and/or sneaky. In the article, “Anti-Social Media: Study Finds Racists Tweets Are Set This Many Times a Day,” author, Chris Hoenig writes, “Racist and derogatory messages are posted on Twitter at a rate of about 10,000 tweets per day, or roughly seven tweets every minute.” The study also found that most of the racial slurs and messages were being thrown about in an extremely casual manner, jokingly, and unknowingly. “Of the 10,000 racist tweets sent per day, upward of 70 percent of them were sent in a fashion not intended to be derogatory or abusive” (Hoenig). In addition, the study found that some of the racists slurs used on Twitter are most commonly used by the same people they were meant to insult (e.g. the frequent use of the word “nigger” within the African-American community) (Hoenig).

Piggybacking off of Hoenig’s findings that racist messaging is often presented in a joking and, or oblivious way is Laudone’s notion of the terms “frontstage” and “backstage” to distinguish types of racist behavior. The colorblind theory of racism previously discussed herein would be considered “frontstage” racism because it is socially acceptable and politically correct; whereas, “The backstage offers a safe place for the expression of racism, including racial joking, stereotypes, images, prejudice and other racial performances. Moreover, the backstage offers a safe place, a racially homogenous network where whites can feel comfortable engaging in racial performances that are supported by the all-white network, consisting of “anchored relationships which rely on shared knowledge and values” (Laudone 7). However, the freedom of social media provides the freedom to throw caution out of the window, consequently allowing the backstage to come to the forefront.

Another study conducted by Rauch and Schanz makes the correlation between frequency of use of social media websites and the acceptance of prejudiced messaging. As stated previously within the review, the primary motivation of most social media users, particularly those of Facebook, is to feel a sense of connectivity with others. Because of this reasoning, critical evaluation of information viewed in various postings becomes a secondary or nonexistent notion. Social media participants are not only able to create their own content, but link to articles and blogs from outside sources; thus, the average user is exposed to mainstream news in addition to the persuasive messages attached to the news by others. Frequent use of social media websites only makes users more susceptible to untruths and ignorance.

 

Facebook messages may also be highly persuasive partly because they come from within the individual’s social network. Schanz 610).

 

Typically, social media users can be broken down into two categories: (1) users with a high need to belong and, or low need for cognition and (2) high information seekers that require effortful thinking (Rauch and Schanz 611). The results of the study conducted by Rauch and Schanz confirmed that those who used social media more frequently had more positive attitudes toward the racially biased messages presented to them via social media; whereas, users in the high information seeking category had more negative attitudes toward messages of racial superiority. Therefore, it can be deduced that the need to connect, coupled with shallow processing contribute to the spread and acceptance of racial messages on social media.

Works cited

 

Assignment

This paper was supposed to focus on sources rather than the issue itself. It has then failed to fully meet its requirements. However, the points are strong, well explained and supported. The paper should anyway be rewritten to focus on sources.

Sources

Credible sources were used though they were not put in the works cited page. There was enough use of sources and the page though two reference styles were employed which is wrong. All in test citation should be put to MLA format for consistence and a works cited page be introduced.

Structure/ organization

There was a logical arrangement of ideas and progressive building of points. The paper was arranged well. There need to be a good conclusion at the end which is missing.

Style/Grammar

The paper has no major mistakes grammatically. It has employed a good style and points are well delivered in paragraphs. There need to be changes in some conjunctions and punctuation as shown in the comments.

Overall

The paper was well researched on with credible sources; however it failed to deliver information consistent with its requirements. This paper was not supposed to be a research or persuasive but focused on sources. It however completely focused on the issue. Language use and transition through the paper was good. There is however a problem with information given consistence with the thesis which was not drafted properly also. The paper had major writing mistakes in referencing when it employed both MLA and APA in some in text citations. Finally, it lacked the very essential works cited page and basic page and paragraph formatting as outlined in the comments.

Request for Proposals

 

 

Request for Proposals

Child Rescue and Rehabilitation Center.

Request for Proposals for Procurement of Web Design, Development and Hosting Services

Date of Issuance: June 22, 2015

Background

Child Rescue and Rehabilitation Center (CRRC) is a newly created division in the ministry of Children and Youth Services that seeks to address the increasing incidents of crimes against children and crimes perpetrated by children. Under the funding of the state government, the division seeks to initiate programs that address child crimes and establish effective rehabilitation and corrective mechanisms. Besides facilitation of prompt reporting of child crimes, the center will be committed to the initiation of education programs regarding child crimes – For the purpose of this document, “child crimes” will refer to crimes perpetrated by children and against children. The center also targets to offer aid to rescued children and facilitate their continuation of normal life. The organizational mission is to facilitate the realization of a state free from child crimes.

Purpose

To execute its mandate efficiently, CRRC seeks to establish an independent website. This RFP serves to invite prospective offerors to submit proposals for completion of the work. The website shall include but shall not be limited to a well-developed reporting page, a resource center, an interactive communication page, financial information page, and ad hoc web-portals. The project will also involve continuous development and hosting of the website for a period agrred upon by the successful entity upon completion of website development phase. Prospective offerors are advised to download detailed requirement specification documents from the Ministry of Children and Youth Services Website for their evaluation.

Schedule of Events

Time Date Scheduled Event
0900hours June 23, 2015 Opening date for submission of proposals
1500hours July 29, 2015 Closing date for submission of proposals
1500hours August 15, 2015 Deadline for notification of offerors on status of the proposals
0800hours August 23, 2015 Presentation by the final three prospective offerors.
1500hours September 1, 2015 Notification of award

RFP Provisions

  • This is an open competitive process. Any form of conversing for favor will lead to automatic disqualification from the process.
  • CRRC will not compensate for costs incurred in preparation of proposals.
  • The proposals must be delivered via email, clearly quoting “CRRC Project H002/2015” as the subject, addressed to the CRRC Division Manager. Email: crrcmanager@mcys.gov on or before 1500hours July 29, 2015.
  • Proposals submitted after 1500hours July 29, 2015 will be discarded immediately.

All responses to the RFP must include:

  • Detailed technical specifications to meet the needs of CRRC as provided in the requirement specification document.
  • Evidence of similar work performed by the offeror.
  • Sub-contractors such, as for web hosting services, and their company details and contacts
  • Detailed document of the budget and a price list that is all-inclusive.
  • A detailed company profile including a list of technical staff and qualified professionals.

Evaluation Criteria and Method of Award

Evaluation of proposals will be based on demonstrated technical competence, compliance, financial strength, and demonstrated project management capability. The offeror with the least cost proposal will not necessarily be awarded the offer. Cost proposals will be evaluated for their completeness, and cost realism. The successful offeror will be expected to commence the work by September 15, 2015 and will be expected to complete the website development and initial web-hosting phase within 90 days.

 

 

Question 1:

  1. Communality for wQ1=(loading on factor 1)2 + (loading on factor 2)2

=0.4682+0.1382

=0.238

  1. The communality for a wW1 is 0.606 which means the proportion of variation in variable wW1 explained by the two factors is 60.6%.
  2. Total available variance = number of variables used in the analysis=14
  3. Total amount of variance accounted for by two factors after rotation=53.005%
  4. As most of the variability is explained by just first factor so we need not use two factors. That is why researcher decided to use only one factor. Also point of inlexion is second so the number of factors is 1.
  5. The goodness of fit test is significant indicating that the correlation matrix is different from identity matrix, therefore, there are some relationships between the variables we hope to include in the analysis and hence factor analysis is justified. The three factors explain 58.043% of the variance in variables which is quite moderate and hence factor analysis does not seem to be adequate. Also, the communality matrix shows that the factors explain less than 0.40 variations in wQ1 and wQ2 which is again not enough. Also, looking at patern matrix it is observed that loadings are very small for wl2 for each of the three factors. So factor analysis is not appropriate.
  6. The person with higher values for questions wl4,wl3,wl5,wl6 , wl1 and wl2 would score high on factor 1 as these questions have higher positive loading by factor 1.
  7. The person with lower values for questions ww4,ww3,ww1,ww2 would score high on factor 2 as these questions have negative loading by factor 2.
  8. The correlation between factor 1 and factor 2 is -0.699 which means that these factors are not independent and that this constitute of items which are negatively related to each other, that is items in factor 1 are negatively related to factor 2 items.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 www.acelancer.com

Question 2:

Hypotheses are ;

H1: there is a significant difference in the coping assessment for three measure avoidance coping , behavioural coping and cognitive coping which were measured before and  after stress condition and one month later.

H2: the three measures differ in first and second coping , second and third coping but do not differ in first and third coping.

Descriptive statistics shows that:

  1. avoidance coping increases in the second stage after stressful incidence the average coping ability increases while in the third stage lower down
  2. behavioural coping increases in the second stage after stressful incidence the average coping ability increases and also  in the third stage increase is observed
  3. cognitive coping remains almost same in the second stage after stressful incidence while in the third stage increase very much.

We have repeated measure MANOVA with no between subject variable, so from table of tests of within-subjects Effects we observe that all the four tests lead to rejection of the null hypothesis that there is not a significant difference in the coping assessment for three measure avoidance coping , behavioural coping and cognitive coping which were measured before and  after stress condition and one month later  as p<0.001 for each test.

Hence there is a significant difference in the coping assessment for three measure avoidance coping , behavioural coping and cognitive coping which were measured before and  after stress condition and one month later.

As the results are significant so post hoc repeated measure ANOVA in Univariate test Table were applied and showed that (The Mauchly test is significant for each coping measure avoidance coping (p<0.0001), behavioural coping (p<0.001) and cognitive coping (p<0.001) indicating that Sphericity cannot be assumed.

  1. there is significant difference in the mean avoidance coping in three point of times ( before stress after stress and a month later) as Greenhouse –Geisser test is significant , p=0.001
  2. there is significant difference in the mean behavioural coping in three point of times ( before stress after stress and a month later) as Greenhouse –Geisser test is significant , p<0.001
  3. there is significant difference in the mean cognitive coping in three point of times ( before stress after stress and a month later) as Greenhouse –Geisser test is significant , p<0.001

 

To test for second hypothesis H2, the contrasts were tested and the results are in table of Tests of within-subject contrasts.  The results showed that

  1. for avoidance coping the mean coping after stress (level 2) is not significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p=0.193>0.05 while the mean the mean coping a month after stress (level 3) is  significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p=0.012<.05. this is contrary to hypothesis H2 as we expected the increase in coping after stress and a month later the coping should reduce to first level before stress.
  2. for behavioural coping the mean coping after stress (level 2) is significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p<0.001 and also the mean coping a month after stress (level 3) is  significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p<0.001. this is contrary to hypothesis H2 as we expected the increase in coping after stress and a month later the coping should reduce to first level before stress.
  3. for cognitive coping the mean coping after stress (level 2) is not significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p=0.738>0.05 while the mean the mean coping a month after stress (level 3) is  significantly different than before stress (level 1) as p<0.001. this is contrary to hypothesis H2 as we expected the increase in coping after stress and a month later the coping should reduce to first level before stress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 3:

  1. partial regression coefficient for gender at stage 1 is 2.152 which means that holding fear constant on an average the productivity of females is 2.152 more than that of males.
  2. 95% confidence interval for the regression coefficient for gender at stage 1 is (0.278 , 4.025) which means that on an average holding fear constant, the female are 0.278 to 4.025 more productive than males.
  3. The partial correlation coefficient for FEAR at stage 1 is -0.643 which shows that after controlling for gender there is high negative correlation between fear and productivity.
  4. The partial correlation coefficient for FEAR at stage 2 is -0.32 which shows that after controlling for gender and job satisfaction there is weak negative correlation between fear and productivity.
  5. The R square change ar stage 2 of the regression is 0.156 which means that addition of job satisfaction to predictor list leads to increase of 15.6% more variability of the productivity explained by the model.
  6. The change in the R square at stage 2 is significant as Fchange(1, 373)=136.388, p<0.001.
  7. From the analysis of variance table in stage 2 we observe that the regression model is significant after adding job satisfaction to the predictor list in addition to gender and fear as F(3, 373)=166.655, p<0.001.
  8. The part correlation coefficient for fear at stage 2 is -0.230 which means that if we remove fear from the regression then the R square decrease by (-0.230)2=0.053 which is very low indicating no use of fear almost.
  9. Tolerance of gender is 0.999 which means that proportion of variability in gender not explained by fear and job satisfaction  is 99.9%.

Tolerance of fear is 0.576 which means that proportion of variability in fear not explained by   gender and job satisfaction  is 57.6%.

Tolerance of job satisfaction  is 0.576 which means that proportion of variability in job satisfaction  not explained by   fear and gender  is 57.6%.

As all tolerance levels are greater than 0.1 so there is no problem of multicollinearity.

  1. Standardized coefficient of job satisfaction is 0.521 which is more than standardized coefficients of gender (0.089) and fear (-0.303). So, job satisfaction has more effect on productivity than gender and fear.
  2. As fear has high standardized coefficient -0.642 in stage 1   and decreased in stage 2 to -0.303, so it follows that fear has indirect impact on prductivity through job satisfaction. However, the standardized coefficient 0.089 of gnder does not change from stage 1 to stage 2 so gender has no indirect impact on prductivity through job satisfaction.
  3. Hitogram is symmetric and normal P-P plot points are in a straight line representing normal distribution so the standardized residuals shows normality of residuals. The points in the scatter plot of standardized residuals versus the standardized predicted values are randomly distribtued around the line through zero residual indicating assumtpion of homoscedasticity of variances of errors is satisfied.

Critical value of Mahalanobis distance for three idependent variables is 16.3.

As the calculated values of Mahalanobis distance have maximum value 18.406 which is greater than critical value 16.3, so we cocnldue that there are mutlivariate outliers in the data. Cook’s distance values are not grwater than 1 so there are no influential points in data.

  1. As the interaction between age and job satsifaction is signficant (b=-0.612, t=-2.513, p=0.012<0.05) and negative so it follows that age moderate the realtinship between job satisfaction and job performance and that the job satisfaction have greater impact on performance in the case if people under 30 years than in case of older people as coefficient of interaction is negative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 4:

  1. As child adjustment is affected by parenting and which in turn is affected by marital conflict, so in this case linear regression with child adjustment as dependent variable and marital conflict tested first alone and then with parenting, so here hierarchical multiple regression with marital conflict in first stage and in addition the parenting in the second stage will be used as predictors..
  2. As we have three variables of personality, namley, neuroticism , extroversion and conscientiousess meaures on same children and one factor of four level (of four ultures: Australia, China, Japan, USA), so here single factor independent groups (between-subjects) MANOVA will be used.
  3. As we have two personal adjustment measures self-esteem and depression scores measured before, after six and after twelve months intervention program, so here we will use single factor repeated measure (witnin-subjects) MANOVA.
  4. Here psychological well being is dependent variable, and family conflict and family status are independent variable with an interaction of familty conflict and familty status to know the influence on young people of divorced family. So, here linear regression involving interaction term will be appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emergency Management

 

The disaster of Texas City was an industrial accident that occurred on April 16, 1947 in the port of Texas City. A giant explosion was occurred during the loading of fertilizers onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City by originating with a mid-morning fire aboard. Its cargo of approximately 2,300 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated, with initial blast and subsequent chain-reaction of further fires and explosions in the other ships and nearby oil-storage facilities. Approximately 405 people were identified as dead and 63 have never been identified whereas 113 people were missing (Minutaglio, Bill (2003). The explosion caused $100 million in damages in United States. On behalf of 8,485 victims, the disaster triggered first ever class action lawsuit against United States government, under recently enacted The Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA). On April 13, 1950, the district court found that United States was responsible for a litany of negligent acts of omission and commission by 168 named agencies and their representatives in the manufacturing, packaging and labeling of ammonium nitrate and also errors in transport, storage, loading, fire prevention, and fire suppression, all of which led to the explosions and the subsequent carnage. The Supreme Court affirmed that decision noting that the district court had no jurisdiction under the federal statute to find the U.S. government liable for “negligent planning decisions” which were properly delegated to various departments and agencies. The Dust Bowl exodus in America was the largest migration in American history within a short period of time. During the dust storms of the 1930s, the weather threw up so much dirt that there was zero visibility and everything was covered with the dirt. Approximately 3.5 million people moved out of plains states of those, it was unknown how many moved to California between 1930 and 1940 (Worster, Donald, 1979). The Dust Bowl, 1930s forced tens of thousands of the families to abandon their farms. Many of these families migrated to California and other states. The crisis was documented by the photographers, musicians and authors, many hired during the Great Depression by the federal government. All of them captured what have become classic images of the dust storms and the migrant families. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 in United States was the most destructive river flood in the history of the United States with 27,000 square miles inundated up to a depth of 30 feet. To prevent future floods, the government of United States built the world’s longest system of the levees and floodways and about 30 tons of dynamite were set off on the levee at Caernarvon, Louisiana and sent 250,000 ft³/s of water pouring through. African Americans, comprising 75% of the population in the delta lowlands and supplying 95% of the agricultural labor force, were most affected in Mississippi flood. It has been estimated that out of 637,000 people forced to relocate by water, 94% lived in three states Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana and that 69% of 325,146 people who occupied the relief camps were African American (William Alexander Percy, 2006).

Following the Great Flood of 1927, the Army Corps of Engineers was again charged with taming Mississippi River. Under the Flood Control Act of 1928, the world’s longest system of the levees was built. The floodways that diverted excessive flow from the Mississippi River were constructed. United States also needed money to rebuild existing roads and bridges. Louisiana despite receiving $1,067,336.40 from the federal government for rebuilding, also had to institute a state gasoline tax to create a $30,000,000 fund to pay for the new hard-surfaced highways (Barry et al. 1998). More than 75% of topsoil was blown away by the end of 1930s in many regions. The land degradation also varied widely. Aside from the short-term economic consequences caused by the erosion, there were severe long-term economic consequences of the Dust Bowl in America. Dust Bowl was a severe American environmental problem and such a problem deserved better treatment than it regretfully received.

John M. Barry measured the Mississippi flood’s effects on the political power, race relations, and the land itself in America. This history of America is at its best when it describes the personalities and the theories that shaped flood control and relief efforts. It also does a good job of integrating the natural disaster into the political and social history of America. According to Koliba et al. (2011, 210), “failures of accountability lead to the failures in performance.” To avoid failure and go beyond the analysis of the disaster governance breakdowns, it is important to identify the drivers and pre-requisites of the good disaster governance. The conventional and administrative approach of managing risk rather than reducing, it focuses on the disaster preparedness and response rather than long-term reduction of the risk, losses, exposure and vulnerability. The disaster contributed to the great migration of the African Americans from the south to the cities in the north. The flood is also found its place in the folklore, music, literature and films.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

“The Black Sunday Dust Storm of 14 April 1935”. National Weather Service: Norman, Oklahoma. August 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.

Barry, John M. (1998), Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How It Changed America. ISBN 0-684-84002-2.

John M. Barry, (1998), Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How it Changed America.

Koliba, C J, R M Mills, and A Zia, (2011), “Accountability in Governance Networks: An Assessment of Public, Private, and Nonprofit Emergency Management Practices Following Hurricane Katrina.” Public Administration Review 71 (2): 210–220. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02332.x.

Minutaglio, Bill (2003),  City on Fire: The Explosion That Devastated a Texas Town and Ignited a Historic Legal Battle. Harper. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-06-095991-3.

William Alexander Percy (2006), Lanterns on the Levee: Recollections of a Planter’s Son. Reprint. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 257–258, 266. ISBN 978-0-8071-0072-1.

Worster, Donald (1979). Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s. Oxford University Press. p. 49.